Aerobic or cardio training is a systematic exercise in which energy for muscle movements is produced in the process of glycolysis. The main goal of such exercises is to increase the efficiency and endurance of the heart muscle. At the same time, cardio exercises help to solve other problems.
Who needs a heart training and why?
A feature of the exercises for cardio training at home and in the gym is that they:
- strengthen muscles and vascular system, stabilize blood pressure;
- increase the volume of the lungs, improve the work of the respiratory system;
- Burn fat and stimulate metabolism, thereby contributing to weight loss;
- lower the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- prevent heart attack, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus;
- develop resistance to stress, give a charge of vivacity;
- increase the endurance of the body and immunity.
Cardiovascular exercises are useful for beginner athletes, since they prepare the cardiovascular system for more intensive and heavy loads. They form the basis for the training of representatives of high-speed sports. Exercises that help burn fatty tissue, necessarily include a variety of fitness programs.
In addition, exercises for burning fat – an important component of training in the preparation for the competition, allowing you to “dry” the body.One of the most effective means of combating zumba fitness obesity is long (at least 45 minutes) cardio training.
We need “warm” loads and athletes. Performing cardiovascular exercises during the warm-up phase or 5-10-minute run on the track before the main training allow the sportsmen-siloviki to maintain the cardiovascular system in a tone. Especially in the prevention of myocardium, athletes are in need of adulthood.
How correctly to carry out cardio?
On average, the cardio exercise complex takes about 20 to 40 minutes. Begin to play sports best from 5-10-minute sessions and in a few weeks bring the total duration of the training to half an hour. Later, when the endurance of the body increases, the occupation can be spent longer, for example, an hour.
The complex of exercises for losing weight is best done in the morning, when the metabolic rate is increased. Numerous studies show that the peak of mobilization of the organism in the first half of the day is 9-12 hours. There are arguments in favor of late training. Thus, muscle productivity reaches its maximum in the evening.It is advisable to take food 2-3 hours before the workout. You can eat after cardio loads after 45 minutes. During the whole exercise you must drink to maintain the water-salt balance.
At 19 hours, there is the lowest level of cortisol. It is a hormone that destroys muscle fibers and contributes to the accumulation of fat. In addition, for working “owls” the evening is the only possible time for training.
Cardio training for burning fat and strengthening muscles has a number of characteristics.
- You need to do it 3-5 times a week. The interval between training sessions should not exceed two days.
- Before performing cardio necessarily make a workout. Heats the muscles for 5-10 minutes, performing general exercises.
- Exercises for stretching – the final block of training, helping to relax the muscles.
- Positive attitude is an indispensable condition for quality training, so you need to choose the movements that you like, deal with music and, if it turns out, in the fresh air.
- Sportswear should be comfortable. From the shoe, give preference to light sneakers with good damping properties and fixation on the foot.
Movement in the rhythm of the heart
The main rule of cardio training is to constantly monitor the heart rate. By pulse, one can judge both safety and efficiency of loads. Before performing the movements, find out the speed of your heartbeat at rest. To do this, find the place of blood ripples under the skin on the inner side of the wrist. It is most convenient to look for the pulse with the fingertips (index and middle) of the free hand. Feeling the heartbeat, note the time and count the number of beats in 15 seconds. Then multiply the result by “4”. In an adult, the normal heart rate varies between 60-100 beats per minute.
Another indicator that should be taken into account is the maximum allowable pulse (heart rate max). To obtain the desired value of 220 subtract the age of the athlete. So, for a 20-year-old woman, the heart rate is max of 200 beats per minute, for a 35-year-old woman – 185. What is this indicator, and why is it so important?
The pulse rate, approaching the upper border, is a signal that the heart is working at the limit. And if this barrier by negligence or ignorance oversteps, a heart attack may occur.
To ensure that aerobic exercise is effective and at the same time safe, the heart rate should be within 60-80% of max. It is noteworthy that losing weight is better to train at a level of 60-70%, and for the development of endurance you can take the bar and higher – 70-80%. Calculate the aerobic corridor according to the formula: Heart rate max × 0.6 (0.7 or 0.8). For example, a woman of 30 years old pulse during a fat burning workout should have 114-133 beats per minute. If the goal of cardio is to increase stamina, the heart rate should be in the range of 133-152 beats / min.
Popular Aerobic Exercises
To understand what cardio is in practice, you can by examining the generally available types of such exercises. Walking is one of the ways of human movement and at the same time an aerobic load that burns 300-400 calories per hour. Fitness instructors recommend newcomers to walk at a rapid pace 20-45 minutes three times a week. The pulse rate in this case should be 50-70% of the heart rate max. Walking, as a kind of cardio-loading, is suitable for people suffering from obesity, recovering from trauma.
Intensive burning calories allows jogging. The energy consumption per hour is 600 cal. The main load is on the muscles of the thighs and legs, partially involved hands. Running is an excellent exercise for losing weight at home, one of the elements of general physical fitness, a preventative against osteoporosis. For beginner athletes, experts are advised to practice three times a week for about half an hour. The heart rate during the training should be at the level of 65-85% of the heart rate max.
Riding a bicycle gives the same lipolytic effect as running, but less stresses the joints. The energy consumption is 600 calories per hour. Bicycle riding is ideal for older people, people with certain problems of the musculoskeletal system.
For burning fat at home, you can buy an exercise bike. Such a ride not only promotes weight loss, but also helps to depict the relief of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh (quadriceps). Beginners have to bike preferably 3 times a week for 30-45 minutes, keeping the heart rate within 65-85% of the maximum allowable.
Swimming involves all muscle groups. Due to the damping properties of water, it is safe for ligaments and joints, and therefore shown, among others, to children, pregnant women, the elderly. The energy expenditure during swimming ranges from 600 calories per hour. For training you need: glasses, swimming suit, bathing cap and a subscription to the pool. You need to engage in different techniques. At the stage of warm-up, the rabbit is preferred. In the main part alternate freestyle, breaststroke and butterfly. At the end, swim on your back at a slow pace. Beginner swimmers should perform cardio exercises for weight loss three times a week for 45 minutes. The pulse rate is 60-85% of the heart rate max.
Aerobic exercise at home
Many exercises for cardio training are feasible for beginners. For their implementation does not require detailed instruction of the coach and sports equipment. Suitable cardio exercises at home – running and jumping. You can run on the spot, but always energetically, at a pace rhythmic music. Perform the exercise better at the beginning of the workout – at the warm-up stage. It can be a classic run, with a high knee lift or with an overlap.
As for jumping, they should be alternated: small and frequent bouncing with deep squats and jumping up. Another effective exercise for losing weight at home – the “pendulum”. The initial position is the stance: the back is even, the shoulders are straightened, the stomach is retracted. You can put your hands on your waist or put them in front of your chest. Then jump from side to side for a minute, gradually increasing the amplitude of the movements.